Types / Refers to [Piece] in Order to

Average Questions Per Test1.7
Predicted Questions on Modern Test1.8
The passage we'll be using to introduce refers to [piece] in order to is the same that we used for primary purpose, so be sure to read through that intro to understand how we'd suggest to read and mark the passage's structure.

Refers to [piece] in order to questions are somewhat easy to identify, and oftentimes will have specific line references (e.g., "lines 30–36"), as does the example question we pulled from the sample questions LSAC provides on its website. For those questions, we suggest stopping after reading those lines, go answer the question, and then return to reading the passage. It's easy to identify the "line reference" questions by just skimming through the question stems, as the numbers and/or parenthesis should jump out at you. We'll write another post about the other advantages to this strategy, but you can't always apply it to refers to [piece] in order to questions.

Some example question stems from modern LSATs include:

The author’s discussion of [passage topic] serves primarily to
Which one of the following describes the author’s primary purpose in mentioning the [fact] (lines 12–17)?
The author’s reference to the belief that “[quoted evidence]” (lines 24–25) primarily serves to

The flying spaghetti monster is referred to by some debaters in order to suggest a conclusion about creationism.

This evaluating evidence use task most often requires the examinee to consider the question stem's highlighted text within the somewhat narrow context of the lines surrounding it; sometimes, however, the question will require the reader to orient the highlighted text within the passage's overall argument. As such, it's often quite helpful to actively read the passage and highlight changes in topic and structure, as refers to [piece] in order to will necessarily hinge on the argumentation around it.

Finally, keeping in mind the various argumentative structural components that the information could be providing: premise, evidence, or conclusion. Prephrasing this structural use of the highlighted text will often be enough to eliminate many distractors. 

So, putting it all together with the passage we introduced for primary purpose:

2. The author most likely lists some of the themes and objects
    influencing and appearing in Lichtenstein’s paintings (lines 38-43)
    primarily to
As a reminder, the Zen system suggests skimming the question stems for the entire passage, taking note of the ones with line references, and then notating the passage with the question numbers along the the passage's margins. In this case, you should actively read the passage up until about line 48, then move on to answer the question before continuing.

       The painter Roy Lichtenstein helped to define pop
       art—the movement that incorporated commonplace
       objects and commercial-art techniques into paintings
       by paraphrasing the style of comic books in his work.
(5)   His merger of a popular genre with the forms and
       intentions of fine art generated a complex result: while
       poking fun at the pretensions of the art world,
       Lichtenstein’s work also managed to convey a
       seriousness of theme that enabled it to transcend mere
(10) parody.
       That Lichtenstein’s images were fine art was at
       first difficult to see, because, with their word balloons
       and highly stylized figures, they looked like nothing
       more than the comic book panels from which they were
(15) copied. Standard art history holds that pop art emerged
       as an impersonal alternative to the histrionics of
       abstract expressionism, a movement in which painters
       conveyed their private attitudes and emotions using
       nonrepresentational techniques. The truth is that by the
(20) time pop art first appeared in the early 1960s, abstract
       expressionism had already lost much of its force. Pop
       art painters weren’t quarreling with the powerful early
       abstract expressionist work of the late 1940s but with a
       second generation of abstract expressionists whose
(25) work seemed airy, high-minded, and overly lyrical.
       Pop art paintings were full of simple black lines and
       large areas of primary color. Lichtenstein’s work was
       part of a general rebellion against the fading emotional
       power of abstract expressionism, rather than an aloof
(30) attempt to ignore it.
       But if rebellion against previous art by means of
       the careful imitation of a popular genre were all that
       characterized Lichtenstein’s work, it would possess
       only the reflective power that parodies have in relation
(35) to their subjects. Beneath its cartoonish methods, his
       work displayed an impulse toward realism, an urge to
       say that what was missing from contemporary painting
 2.   was the depiction of contemporary life. The stilted
       romances and war stories portrayed in the comic books
(40) on which he based his canvases, the stylized
       automobiles, hot dogs, and table lamps that appeared in
       his pictures, were reflections of the culture Lichtenstein
       inhabited. But, in contrast to some pop art,
       Lichtenstein’s work exuded not a jaded cynicism about
(45) consumer culture, but a kind of deliberate naivete,
       intended as a response to the excess of sophistication
       he observed not only in the later abstract expressionists
       but in some other pop artists.
After reading the passage to this point, we should be ready to skip ahead to question 2 and answer it before continuing.

The author most likely lists some of the themes and objects influencing and appearing in Lichtenstein’s paintings (lines 38-43) primarily to
(A) show that the paintings depict aspects of contemporary life
(B) support the claim that Lichtenstein’s work was parodic in intent
(C) contrast Lichtenstein’s approach to art with that of abstract
      expressionism

(D) suggest the emotions that lie at the heart of Lichtenstein’s work
(E) endorse Lichtenstein’s attitude toward consumer culture
Answer choice A nicely fits along with the third paragraph's structure of closely describing Lichtenstein's aesthetic, leveraging that into how he consciously used it to create poignant art from common cultural tools. The list is clearly made up of specific evidence, thus any non-evidentiary keywords make an answer choice suspect.

On that basis alone, E can be removed because a list of objects cannot, on its own, lead to an endorsement of an attitude.

Answer choice B mischaracterizes the author's argument, as he or she is emphatic that Lichtenstein's work transcends parody.

While answer choice C starts off somewhat promisingly, and the list does seem in contrast with what little we are told about abstract expressionism in the second paragraph (it's "airy, high-minded, and overly lyrical"); however, the list the refers to [piece] in order to question emphasizes is in the entire next paragraph. The author has moved on from abstract expressionism and is building an argument about how Lichtenstein uses popular culture to build something more than parody.

Oppositely, answer choice D conflates the list with the author's later argument that Lichtenstein's "deliberate naivete" and his work's "inner sweetness" created a rich ground for artistic juxtaposition with the real world. Remember that the LSAT is only asking about the specific pieces of the argument listed, not the overall arguments in the paragraph or lines mentioned.
TestQ #SectionAnswerYour AnswerDistractorDifficulty
June 200764BEnterEasy
June 2007214DEnterBMedium
PT 6851AEnterBHard
PT 68101BEnterVery Easy
PT 68191DEnterAHard
PT 6533EEnterAMedium
PT 65113BEnterC/AHard
PT 65243EEnterAHard
PT 6424BEnterMedium
PT 6484AEnterMedium
PT 6364EEnterCHard
PT 63124CEnterBHard
PT 63264DEnterC/EHard
PT 6231EEnterMedium
PT 6111DEnterMedium
PT 6121BEnterDHard
PT 6191EEnterAMedium
PT 61151AEnterMedium
PT 5944BEnterVery Easy
PT 59124AEnterVery Easy
PT 5724AEnterVery Easy
PT 57234DEnterEasy
PT 5664AEnterEasy
PT 55202BEnterEasy
PT 5421CEnterVery Easy
PT 54141DEnterBHard
PT 54261AEnterDMedium
PT 5334DEnterMedium
PT 5354DEnterEasy
PT 53254DEnterCHard
PT 52144EEnterEasy
PT 52264DEnterEasy
PT 5132EEnterA/BHard
PT 5152CEnterEasy
PT 51102DEnterMedium
PT 51172DEnterBHard
PT 51282BEnterMedium
PT 50201AEnterDHard
PT 50231DEnterHard
PT 49193DEnterCHard
PT 49243DEnterBHard
PT 4843BEnterEasy
PT 4732EEnterDHard
PT 47132AEnterMedium
PT 4651EEnterEasy
PT 4542CEnterVery Easy
PT 45212BEnterEasy
PT 4471AEnterBVery Hard
PT 4491CEnterEMedium
PT 4371AEnterCMedium
PT 43201BEnterEasy
PT 43271AEnterEasy
PT 42103AEnterEasy
PT 42183DEnterEasy
PT 4124EEnterEasy
PT 41114BEnterEasy
PT 41194DEnterEasy
PT 4034AEnterCHard
PT 38133DEnterAMedium
PT 3632EEnterEasy
PT 36132EEnterMedium
PT 36162CEnterMedium
PT 3532DEnterVery Easy
PT 35162DEnterMedium
PT 34111BEnterEasy
PT 33252AEnterCMedium
PT 3252BEnterMedium
PT 32182AEnterVery Easy
PT 32212DEnterEasy
PT 31204CEnterDHard
PT 31254AEnterEMedium
PT 30163BEnterVery Easy
PT 2942BEnterMedium
PT 2793BEnterDHard
PT 27193BEnterEasy
PT 2674BEnterVery Easy
PT 26204CEnterVery Easy
PT 25111CEnterAHard
PT 25151AEnterCMedium
PT 24111CEnterVery Easy
PT 24171AEnterEasy
PT 2334EEnterEasy
PT 23124AEnterB/EHard
PT 23154AEnterEHard
PT 23234BEnterAHard
PT 22181BEnterEasy
PT 21274BEnterMedium
PT 2092BEnterVery Easy
PT 20102CEnterMedium
PT 20162AEnterMedium
PT 1923EEnterEasy
PT 19223AEnterMedium