Types / Justify

Average Questions Per Test2.5
Predicted Questions on Modern Test2.0
This Zen task is one of the more difficult to recognize as it can easily be conflated with its other principle strand counterparts as well as with the strengthen task. Whereas the other principle tasks as you to match examples with principles or vice versa, justify requires you to identify a qualitative premise that covers at least the stimulus's argument.

On a modern LSAT, a common question stem is:

Which one of the following principles, if valid, most helps to justify the [stimulus'] reasoning?
Often, however, a justify answer will obviously apply to many more situations than just the one(s) presented in the stimulus; this "scope" difference can be confusing for test-takers, who are punished for thinking broadly in almost every other logical reasoning task.

As with all principle standards, the correct answer to a justify question will map onto the evidence presented in the stimulus including all the relevant actors, relationships and degrees of certainty. However, justify requires the testtaker to pay much more attention to the stimulus' conclusion (indeed, other principle standards might only be a collection of evidence with no conclusion), as the correct answer will be a generality that provides some affective premise for the conclusion. Thus, the same strategy of identifying actors, their relationships, and degrees of certainty that works for the extrapolation strand will also apply for this task.

For example, a stimulus from the point of view of a law clerk might provide that:

A judge should apologize to me for lying to me because the judge has already apologized to the lawyers on the case for telling them the same lie.
The correct justify answer could be framed in varying levels of generality, from "If a lier apologizes to one person for lying, he should apologize to someone else who finds out he was lying," to "Everyone should apologize for lying."

Distractors for this argument could include:
  • Conflating the relationship "should apologize" with being "good to apologize"
  • Incorrectly limiting the scope of the relationship, such as saying that a lier should apologize only if both of those lied to deserve the apology.
    • Note that the stimulus doesn't need this to be the only reason a lier should apologize, nor does it explain why the clerk deserves an apology.
  •  Conflating the relationship "should apologize" with "able to apologize"
  • Incorrectly negating the argument, i.e., stating that a lier does not need to apologize unless all who have been lied to can receive an apologize.
TestQ #SectionAnswerYour AnswerDistractorDifficulty
June 2007243EEnterB/DHard
PT 6852AEnterVery Easy
PT 68162CEnterVery Easy
PT 6813CEnterEHard
PT 68123BEnterVery Easy
PT 6782EEnter
PT 67152CEnter
PT 67182DEnterB
PT 67252CEnter
PT 6774EEnter
PT 6784DEnter
PT 6672DEnter
PT 66122BEnter
PT 6624CEnter
PT 66114BEnter
PT 66164CEnter
PT 65141BEnterEHard
PT 65241CEnterEMedium
PT 64121DEnterMedium
PT 64203CEnterMedium
PT 63111DEnterMedium
PT 63151CEnterMedium
PT 63181EEnterMedium
PT 63221BEnterMedium
PT 63233CEnterA/DHard
PT 62232CEnterEMedium
PT 62262EEnterEasy
PT 62154DEnterEasy
PT 62204EEnterHard
PT 6152AEnterMedium
PT 61212EEnterBHard
PT 61194EEnterMedium
PT 61234DEnterEasy
PT 60181EEnterVery Easy
PT 60231EEnterDHard
PT 60203AEnterBHard
PT 60243BEnterCHard
PT 59132CEnterEasy
PT 57193DEnterMedium
PT 56162DEnterCHard
PT 5633BEnterMedium
PT 56123AEnterEasy
PT 5561AEnterEasy
PT 55173AEnterMedium
PT 5494AEnterCHard
PT 53123BEnterAMedium
PT 53253CEnterEMedium
PT 5281CEnterVery Easy
PT 52191EEnterHard
PT 51133BEnterMedium
PT 50122AEnterEVery Hard
PT 50184DEnterAMedium
PT 49152CEnterEasy
PT 49214CEnterMedium
PT 4891DEnterEasy
PT 48161DEnterEasy
PT 48181DEnterEasy
PT 4731CEnterEasy
PT 47263DEnterVery Easy
PT 46143BEnterEasy
PT 45141EEnterMedium
PT 4534EEnterVery Easy
PT 45254BEnterEHard
PT 4424BEnterEasy
PT 43142CEnterMedium
PT 43212EEnterEasy
PT 4373DEnterEasy
PT 43113DEnterMedium
PT 42154BEnterEasy
PT 41171CEnterVery Easy
PT 40181BEnterEasy
PT 4093CEnterEasy
PT 3932AEnterVery Easy
PT 39144AEnterBMedium
PT 3844AEnterVery Easy
PT 3712CEnterEasy
PT 37222BEnterCHard
PT 37242EEnterVery Easy
PT 37214BEnterMedium
PT 36151DEnterEasy
PT 36203BEnterAHard
PT 3521DEnterEasy
PT 35114BEnterEVery Hard
PT 34163EEnterEasy
PT 33161CEnterEasy
PT 33211CEnterAVery Hard
PT 3363CEnterEasy
PT 3234AEnterEasy
PT 3143EEnterEasy
PT 31263BEnterCMedium
PT 30154CEnterEasy
PT 30234CEnterVery Easy
PT 29221DEnterCVery Hard
PT 2974CEnterVery Easy
PT 28183CEnterVery Easy
PT 27241DEnterB/EHard
PT 24203BEnterAHard
PT 2353AEnterEasy
PT 21173DEnterAHard
PT 2051EEnterVery Easy
PT 20124BEnterEasy